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                      洮南老人制裘技藝精湛 現要“開門”收徒
                      加入時間:2013/11/14 瀏覽次數:5204

                      洮南老人制裘技藝精湛 現要“開門”收徒 來源: 新文化網  2013-06-06 13:29 編輯:李速 

                      核心提示:上個世紀,皮匠王家憑借著一手制裘技藝,在洮南府(現洮南市)那是相當有名。50年前,王立國繼承了祖傳手藝。如今,他想把手藝傳下去,卻找不到傳人了。“我學藝時,外人想學那是不可能的,只有家族中的男孩兒才能學,現在只要有人想學,我就教,不想讓這門手藝失傳。”王立國說。

                      行話中這叫“招毛”,就是梳理皮子上的毛 新文化網 王國彬 攝

                        上個世紀,皮匠王家憑借著一手制裘技藝,在洮南府(現洮南市)那是相當有名。

                        50年前,王立國繼承了祖傳手藝。如今,他想把手藝傳下去,卻找不到傳人了。

                        “我學藝時,外人想學那是不可能的,只有家族中的男孩兒才能學,現在只要有人想學,我就教,不想讓這門手藝失傳。”王立國說。

                        祖傳制裘技藝立足洮南

                        王立國今年66歲,住在洮南市城北的一處平房區,未進他家的大門,就能聞到一股皮毛的味道。兩間平房,一間是倉房和成品間,另一間是臥房和工作間。工作間靠窗的位置立著一個橫豎搭配的木架,在裘皮制作工藝中,叫鏟桿。可以用來“鏟皮”和“招毛”。

                        坐在炕沿邊,王立國老人點著一根煙,講起皮匠王家的故事。

                        皮匠王家祖籍山東,這制裘手藝是祖傳,傳到王立國爺爺王純手中是第幾代,因時間久遠,他的爺爺當年都記不清了。

                        “我爺爺的活好的不得了,熟皮制裘的技藝行里的人都知道,可謂名滿山東。”王立國說。

                        上個世紀初,戰亂不斷王家的日子越來越不好過,王家就舉家北上“闖關東”。一家人先是在鄭家屯(現雙遼市)安頓下來,租了門面,開起了熟皮鋪子。

                        很快憑借著好手藝,王家在當地站穩了腳跟。不久王立國的爺爺王純就自立門戶,來到了洮南府(現洮南市)。

                        “那時候有錢人少,裘皮活少,可窮苦人家種地、拉活,都得用牲畜,就需要很多皮馬具、馬鞍子。”王立國說,做皮毛、皮馬具和馬鞍子是3種不同的活兒,三樣都會做才能叫祖傳手藝,做沒毛皮子的活,叫白活。當年王家在洮南得以立足,靠的就是這門祖傳手藝。

                        經歷半個世紀從輝煌走向衰敗

                        上個世紀五十年代,13歲的王立國按照祖訓,開始學制裘技藝。“我是家里的長子,按祖傳的規矩,長子是必須繼承這門手藝,如果不學挨打是小事,可能還被逐出家門。”王立國說,他的兩個弟弟都沒有學,另謀生路。

                        剛開始學手藝,王立國只是給父親打下手,他足足做了十年的學徒。“干這行又累、又臟,成天與帶著血與肉的皮張接觸,那時孩子不嬌氣,要是現在的孩子,很少有人能堅持下來。”王立國說。

                        剛剛從動物身上扒下來帶有血跡的叫生皮,生皮首先要在清水缸里浸泡兩天,然后再撈出來,用刀刮掉上面附著的血、肉,行話叫“水桌”。接下來把皮子放入裝有自己配制的藥水的藥缸中浸泡半個月。再經過硝鍋制成熟皮,晾曬、凈里等程,就把生皮熟完了。

                        王立國說,做為手藝人,他們幾乎沒有轉行的,這是一項約定俗成的規矩。當年手藝人是非常受人尊敬的,在社會上有地位,掙錢還多。“記得當時國家干部一個月工資不到30元,我加工一張皮子就能掙15元,到哪都是好吃好喝,當年很多百姓吃不飽飯的困難時期,我家的飯都是干的,從來沒斷過頓。”提到當年風光時刻,王立國笑著說,幾十年下來,他親手做的車馬套和馬鞍不計其數。當年他帶著大鏟、小鏟、釗子、滑鉤,走遍了洮南的大街小巷,就連附近村屯都留有他的足跡和手藝。

                        “后來活越來越少,城里的馬沒了,就連農村種地都不用馬了,人也不騎馬趕路了。現在只能是做一些皮帽子、皮褥子,給別人改改皮衣了。”王立國說。

                        要“開門”收徒外傳手藝

                        目前,王家傳統熟皮制裘技藝已成為白城市非物質文化遺產保護項目。自己的手藝成為了非物質文化遺產,他也成為了傳承人,王立國的心不再平靜了,特別是他去年得了一次重病,他腦海中一直有一個想法,想收徒弟。“這是祖輩傳下來的手藝,按照祖訓,是不能外傳的,兒子不學,孫子也不愛學,我不能讓這門手藝失傳呀。”王立國說,很久以前,他的朋友或者親屬都給他送過徒弟,他都沒有收,因此還得罪不少人,現在他想“開門”收徒弟了,就是找不到想學的人。

                        王立國說,他想收徒弟最重要的一個原因是想感恩,回報社會,“現在我們老兩口有低保,國家給我們錢養老,所以我感激黨,感謝政府。”王立國說,所以他要收徒,只要肯學、能吃苦,無論男女,他都會用心去教,把所有的手藝都傳給他。

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